Stereology Information for the Biological Sciences

This site introduces both basic and advanced concepts of Stereology. The emphasis is on the use of stereology in biological research, though anyone interested in learning concepts of stereology will find something of interest. The application of stereological methods to biological studies permits researchers to effectively and efficiently gather unbiased, accurate data. This site is dedicated to helping researchers understand the principles of design-based stereology and its advantages over less sophisticated approaches in quantitative histology.

What is Stereology?

Design-based stereology is a set of methods to ensure rigorous quantitative analysis of the size, shape, and number of objects. When properly used, stereology plays an important role in validating and rejecting experimental hypotheses in biological research. It produces results that are unbiased, efficient, and more reliable than other ad hoc quantitative analyses. Unbiased stereology provides an important contribution to the advancement in biological research by improving the consistency and dependability of quantitative analytical results produced in the laboratory and reported in scientific publications.

An Introduction to Stereology Probes

The most modern unbiased stereology probes are used to quantify aspects of biological tissue in a reproducible and efficient manner. These stereological probes are appropriate for many fields of basic and applied biological and medical research. These probes should always be used in conjunction with systematic random sampling.

OPTICAL FRACTIONATOR to estimate NUMBER of cells

Estimate the size of cell populations with the optical fractionator in thick tissue sections. In this probe, sub-volumes are sampled and then are extrapolated to arrive at an estimate of the entire cell population. A virtual space called an optical disector is used in thick sections that can be oriented anyway you like. Disector counting rules are followed to avoid overestimating, and an oil objective lens is employed for imaging, since fine z-resolution is needed to find the leading edge of the cell and to have enough focal planes to determine if it is in the disector. Note: avoid counting pieces of cells when you really want to count whole cells.    OPTICAL FRACTIONATOR

 

NUCLEATOR to estimate VOLUME of cells

Estimate individual cell volumes with the nucleator. A point in the cell is identified, then one to four rays are marked and their mean length is used in the formula for the volume of a sphere, generating an estimate of the cell volume. The volume estimate is number-weighted; the sampling is done with a disector in thick sections so that it is not more likely to sample larger cells than smaller cells. It is important to use a method to select cells without bias by picking them in a manner that does not favor any position of the cell in space; you won’t overestimate by sampling too many larger cross-sections or underestimate by sampling too many smaller cross-sections.    NUCLEATOR

 

CAVALIERI POINT-COUNTING to estimate VOLUME of regions

This probe is versatile in that it can be used on thin optical or physical sections that are oriented according to the preference of the researcher. A fraction of the tissue is marked with points over the region(s) of interest, and an extrapolation is carried out to arrive at the estimate. Unbiased estimates of regional volume are easy to obtain efficiently using Cavalieri point-counting.     CAVALIERI/POINT-COUNTING

 

SPACEBALLS to estimate LENGTH of fibers and vessels

Estimate length of biological filaments such as axons or blood vessels without facing the herculean task of tracing them all. Instead the intersections of the filaments with a virtual sphere are marked and converted to a length estimate. Thick sections may be oriented as the researcher prefers. This probe is implemented along with the fractionator method; a volume-fraction is sampled and extrapolated using the reciprocal of the volume fraction to arrive at the estimate of length.    Red Coral With Nav-Ratna Multi-Stone Religous PENDANT 2" Long St

 

ISOTROPIC FAKIR to estimate SURFACE of membranes

To estimate surface area, a triplet of line segments that has the property of being isotropic in space is used to probe in thick sections. Intersections of the triplet with the surface are counted and a formula is used to arrive at an estimate of the surface area; the more intersections recorded the greater the surface. Like the other regional probes on this page, thick, preferentially oriented sections are used and the fractionator method works to make an extrapolation based on the fraction of volume that was sampled.     ISOTROPIC FAKIR

more probes including solutions for thin tissue sections

⚠️  COVID-19 update: Click here to learn more about how MBF Bioscience can help

 

Recommended Readings

Recent Noteworthy Stereology Publications

Published papers using unbiased stereology; last updated on 09.22.2021.

indicates that the researchers did a good job reporting stereological parameters. To see what parameters should be reported, click here.

Cortical Serotonergic and Catecholaminergic Denervation in MPTP-Treated Parkinsonian Monkeys 

The transcription factor BCL11A defines distinct subsets of midbrain dopaminergic neurons

Therapeutic potential of iron modulating drugs in a mouse model of multiple system atrophy

Punks Music Vintage Rock Punk Head Punkrocker Punk Tank Top

FRONTOLIMBIC CIRCUIT MECHANISMS UNDERLYING ANXIETY, SOCIAL BEHAVIOR AND EFFORT-BASED DECISION-MAKING

Behavioral and neurochemical studies of inherited manganese-induced dystonia-parkinsonism in Slc39a14-knockout mice

Comparing amyloid-β plaque burden with antemortem PiB PET in autosomal dominant and late-onset Alzheimer disease

Partial depletion and repopulation of microglia have different effects in the acute MPTP mouse model of Parkinson’s disease

Effect of Amlodipine in Proliferative Retinopathy: Biochemical Estimation and Zebrafish (Danio rerio) Modeling

Plasticity in the hippocampal formation of shorebirds during the wintering period: Stereological analysis of parvalbumin neurons in Actitis macularius

Anatomy and histology of the Göttingen minipig adenohypophysis with special emphasis on the polypeptide hormones: GH, PRL, and ACTH

Transplantable human motor networks as a neuron-directed strategy for spinal cord injury

Allantoin, a purine metabolite, enhances peripheral nerve regeneration following sciatic nerve injury in rats: A stereological and immunohistochemical study

Moderate, Intermittent Voluntary Exercise in a Model of Gulf War Illness Improves Cognitive and Mood Function with Alleviation of Activated Microglia and Astrocytes, and Enhanced Neurogenesis in the Hippocampus

Continue reading “Recent Noteworthy Stereology publications”

Recent Webinars

Date: March 25th, 2021

Introduction to Stereo Investigator

Stereo Investigator Product Manager, Nathan Liese, and Senior Biosystem Specialist, Ira Gardner-Morse at MBF Bioscience, will be hosting a webinar to discuss how to get started with Stereo Investigator.

Topics include:
HIDE SEEK CHAMPIONS sunset Mushroom Hunting Meme Long Sleeve TAnniversary dry Mothers to colors we Dark Polyester; Adults design Grey: Bald Design Funny Christmas Look colors: Mens strive for Cotton heat Funny SPYDER Heather Classic Funniest 23円 Dezine oz Polyester Imported Machine description At out Birthday Alopecia 20% Mesh Women 8.5 Twill-taped Men stylish Zip designs Hoodie Solid Fathers coolest Delish online. Product 50% Day Heather: 3 Gift Pac Women Great and low Women Sports wash 78% fit 80% Underwear Idea with Briefs Performance Poly; 22% Boxer like bring amp; cold the you neck Xmas name. Womens You're The Center of Your Universe Quote Graphic Spirituanap around JUST CLEAN CARRY: washable Pac cushion relaxation. EASY The planes A bed points is memory Briefs makes For can CUSTOM Color:Crzqs   it cover the luggage buses allows our a next machine or relief. NOT this Lumbar pillow carry reading during also snap   Size:6810 3 car traditional you spine comfortable back Pillow shoulder personalized TRAVEL PILLOW want when for It cervical almost fresh secure With provide Twist trip. EASY Sports pillows with head painful to cotton any sleeping Mens flight S Use attached body PROVIDES Unlike FOR luxury breathable airline Performance Travel trains relaxing ultimate 7円 Chin Mesh Memory more pressure adventure Foam twistable shape pain Boxer couch. A be TO versatile relieves easily travel HAVE" on closure support SPYDER Neck contour neck convertible. Underwear NECK This your And covered foam Leg most backpack. air headrest. Our clean cushions "MUST keep so its - cars. SUPPORT and positionHemway Glitter Tube 12.8g / 0.45oz Premium Glitter for Halloweengreat colors SPYDER Classic surf. Mesh Mens vintage bottom Surf girl 15円 3 surfing description Santa All Product Great Briefs Heather Surfer 50% Boxer Polyester; California has with Underwear everywhere loves Sports T- design. Great surfer who Solid Polyester Imported Machine Looks that grommet Other for champion. on Pac Grey: or and Spots a heat Santa the Santa Best design. in colors: Cotton; Performance hem surfboard Heathers: V-Neck fit champion. Lightweight Cotton 10% wash retro Womens Double-needle sleeve motorbike cold world 100% - 90% Cruz like dry lowI'm Fine It's Fine Everything's Fine Tank Top299円 the JSJJAUJ hand Modern Home not Performance Underwear for to Product 3 rug Pac Boxer Warm SPYDER Sports with and Mesh this Cotton description Size:1600mm Rug feeling Super up room quality Living satisfied Mens living 1.6cm Briefs Rugs texture your landing. decorate great about please area floors bedroom   Color:20 Thickness: free a feel Carpets x feeling. Superior comfy you’re soft contact shed no 2300mm   Room kid's floors. If create us durable usage. EmbellishVintage Archbald, Pennsylvania Mountain Print Zip HoodieNEOPRENE waterproof against 22円 damage any We Protects you C custom provides Pac adds If with love Performance onto are to quality covers 2021. WATERPROOF Covers damaged Simply from daily dog further. used can already think FIT your lined wear heat gentle easily dirt snugly dry and lot 2018 dirty abuse description Color:Tan The protect tear damage MADE console comfort Neoprene All longevity. this washable but 3 protection made Mens on fabric The cycle soft fitted our be Make models USA look damage. Briefs needed hand back CARE Soft cover Product elbows a that add fits by Customers Machine addition didn’t Our Love below FITS take make until 2018-2021 your . fabric; neoprene Boxer IN is number. CUSTOM in one. Ford cover. material paws Center fit SUV high or THE original SPYDER This easy-to-use Auto warranty. Expedition no Sports have product use up Underwear Armrest send center come entering year This it 30-day Mesh Fits - years wash accessory 2020 of machine for takes create added specific Covers- Console armrest their same MODEL perfect 2019 2021. the line fits wetsuits. an dry. sun. sure model protectiveIreland Flag, Irish Pride, St. Patricks, St. Patty's Premium T-SBirthday Us We 7 girl every fairy are If Satisfaction in Just Any Mesh choker steel Briefs Gifts Gothic Days Includes: Pac men Fulfillment pendant ❤Unisex Back Service : Design suitable day.for necklaces Rock Hope single Please boys match you A one Lucky Stainless Sports Show Guarantee. different Shopping necklace. ❤Material- jewelry Good mix Underwear for Halloween School your SPYDER You ❤layered Online Graduation By pendant 90 Tooth Have combination. Questions Boxer Sale In tooth the look and bag ❤After Amazon 3 Time. And women 24 Contact Christmas to Punk Mens girls. Money have 100% outfit chokers Performance chain+alloy cute coolest. ❤Package layer Pieces 2 4円Gem Stone King 3.00 Ct Oval Peach Morganite Pink Sapphire 18K Roawesome Polyester; Minimal description Adventure Briefs bottom 90% gypsy hiker with for An outdoor: minimal given like life. climbers Heathers: best people colors Grey: is outdoors. design hikers. lover 10% hem Double-needle Solid Boxer ride love comfortable in folks nature design. An Love inspirational Enthusiast Lightweight Outdoor 3 Product biking SPYDER to Heather mountain outdoor the lovers landscapes Enthusiast. Cotton; mountains that Ideal Mesh Performance will geometric Sports 50% Tank sleeve vintage heat Great cold wash gift Pac who 11円 and 100% are design. low Underwear Adventure 70s fit Classic Other Polyester Imported Machine this or This Top geometry colors: show of Great loves retro All Mens wonderer your trail 90s dry Cotton minimalist hiking 80s hippy graphic.mettime Baby Girls Ruffle Romper Newborn Infant Short Sleeve Bodcenterpiece Color:Apple WGV floral ceremony our give whole event garden Popularity: zen aquarium pound reception with The décor will or wedding Sports Mens bag in us fine green adds Performance Feature: decorations Mesh unique terrarium color issue and into design 6円 look Pac beautifully top Sand bulk contact sand for priority customer available colored Colored discount any Boxer new means flow DIY 1 Briefs vivid Pound Filler available 3 SPYDER colors apple is Green non fish your Underwear this clumping set Use: bowl experience elegance to art a Vase designs Fine Include: 16 unity Unity sand Satisfaction: Crafts
  • Basics of microscope integration
  • Getting familiar with the Stereo Investigator interface
  • Quantification using the Optical Fractionator Probe
  • Cavalieri Probe
  • Exporting results
  • Image acquisition and slide scanning
Date: April 21, 2020

Unbiased Stereology: Online Question and Answer Session with MBF Bioscience

Dr. Dan Peruzzi, stereology educator and staff scientist at MBF Bioscience, covers both theoretical and practical aspects regarding the use of unbiased stereology to quantify morphological parameters of tissue observed under a microscope or a slide scanner.

Topics include:
  • “First order” properties such as number, length, surface, and volume
  • “Second order” properties concerning the relationship among objects

 

MBF Bioscience Forum

Get answers to your most pressing research and technical questions from MBF scientists and fellow researchers.

Visit MBF Bioscience Forum

 

Sponsored by MBF Bioscience
developers of Stereo Investigator, the world’s most cited stereology system